Mummification

  1. Why did they do mummification?
  2. Was there anything in it that was gross?
  3. What are canopic jars meant to do?
  4. Who does all the Mummification?

Mummification was happened to any Egyptian person that could afford it. It was done by people called embalmers and happened in a place called the per nefer or in our language the perfect house. Mummification was all discusting as it included taking out a brain and heart and organs. The organs (that included liver, intestines, lungs and stomach) were put in things called canopic jars. These were 4 jars with heads of animals on the top. There was also coffins for animals such as cats, monkeys and even crocodiles. You can normally tell who is the most important by there coffin as scribes and pharaohs normally have wooden beds that they put there coffin in. When the body is ready to be put in the coffin it was called the opening of the mouth which was performed by Anubis, the God of mummification. Hopefully they won’t start doing that again because we would not like it, would you?

The death mask of Tutenkhamun after being mummified.

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Mirror!

PICK ME UP!!!

Have you been struggling to put on your eyeliner in the morning?

Have people been staring at you and you don’t know why?

Are you tired of walking to the Nile to look at yourself?

If so then his is the leaflet for you!

 

Being as beautiful as you are, you shouldn’t have to walk to the Nile to see yourself. If you agree with me then you must purchase the latest egyptian invention!

 

Someone or other has invented the worlds greatest thing. They have named it a MIRROR!!!! Now you will have no clue of what a mirror is, am I right. Of course I am!!

 

A mirror does the same job as he Nile. Using the mirror, you can see yourself in it. 

 

The  mirror is made of bronze if you polish it when you want to use it the you can see in it. The mirror has a small handle so you can hold it up. It is also very small so it won’t take up much space.

 

Brilliant isn’t it!!!!

Here’s a picture,

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THE MIRROR!!!!!

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The end of Ancient Egypt

  1. Who made this happen?
  2. Who was the last Pharaoh?
  3. Where did the person who took over come from?
  4. When did this happen?

Egypt was invaded by a greek man named Alexander the great. He took over from the last pharaoh named Cleopatra the 7th. She was killed by herself after biting herself with a asp. She lost in a battle and that is why the greek took over. Alexander the 3rd was only 24 when he did this which is amazing!  This all started in Memphis but only left Egypt 6 months after! Myths say that he was supported by the great greek god Zeus. In 30 bc Egypt became part of the rising Roman empire. He found a lot of things under the ground in upper Egypt such as gold with hieroglyphs and pictures of the gods on it.

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Gods

Gods.

There were many gods in ancient Egypt. Ra for one. You must know that the egyptians had a god for almost everything. But were you aware that there were over 2,000 gods!! WOW! That’s only the ones we know of. Here is a list of just five of the gods.

 

Ra, the god of gods. The god of the sun, also known as Re.

Bastet, the goddess of cats and pregnant women.

Thoth, god of wisdom.

Tefnut, god of rain.

Geb, god of earth.

Gods were truly amazing. But just look at Tefnut. THEY HAD A GOD OF RAIN?

Ra was the most important God. He was the lord of all the gods. He was usually shown in human form with a falcon head, crowned with the sun disc encircled by the a sacred cobra.

Ra sailed across the heavens in a boat called the ‘Barque of Millions of Years’. At the end of each day Ra was thought to die and sailed on his night voyage through the Underworld, leaving the Moon to light the world above.

Ra the sun god.

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THE BOOK OF THE DEAD!

I personally find the book of the dead truly fascinating.  Did you know

  1. The Egyptian Book of the Dead is not a single book and was not written by a single person. It is actually a collection of text written down over centuries.
  2. Since the texts were written over hundreds of years, different texts have different authors.
  3. The original text was known as ‘pert em hru’ (according to Encyclopedia) or ‘rw nw prt m hrw’ (according to Wikipedia) ( not sure which is correct?)in Egyptian which literally translates into either ‘manifested in the light’ or ‘coming forth by day’.
  4. Over centuries, several texts were appended and modified by Egyptian priests, eventually totaling to 200 chapters.
  5. None of the chapters in the book are related. They are completely independent. Interestingly none of the chapters are complete because the papyri from which the texts were collected were not found complete.
  6. Originally written in hieratic script or hieroglyphic, the Book of the Dead is actually a collection of magical spells that were supposed to help the dead pass safely through the underworld and eventually emerge into the afterlife.
  7. The book or preferably called, the collection of texts was used during the New Kingdom’s beginning (somewhere in 1550 BCE) but, the whole collection was actually developed through thousands of years before that.
  8. In fact, the tradition of using funerary text started back in Old Kingdom and the first ever funerary text were the Pyramid Texts first seen in around 2400 BCE in pyramid of the 5th dynasty king – King Unas.
  9. In Old Kingdom, the funerary texts were:
  • Written inside the walls of the pyramids.
  • Exclusive for pharaohs till 5th dynasty and the 6th dynasty included the Queen.
  • Written in very unusual hieroglyphs which depicted mutilated animals and humans so that they did not cause any kind of harm to the dead.
  • Meant to help the dead meet their maker, the Ra (name of Egyptian divine father).
  • Also used for high-ranking officials and regional governors but only towards the end of Old Kingdom.
  1. The funerary Pyramid Texts were replaced by Coffin Texts in Middle Kingdom. New spells, new language and even illustrations were found. The texts were written on the inner sides of the coffins. Occasionally, the texts appeared on papyri and even on the walls inside the pyramids.

The book of the dead is truly fascinating.

Don’t you?

A PAGE FROM THE BOOK OF THE DEAD.

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AN EGYPTIAN MARKET (guide)

PICK ME UP.  PLEEEASE

If you have been desperate enough to read this leaflet then you must be lost. You may be a foreigner, a traveler or simply just new to the area. Whatever your reason, your lost. Right!? Well fear not for this letter will save your trip. It shall include the uppermost helpful guide.

 

Well Done if you’ve reached this point. Please read on.

 

Ok, next. Please carefully tear this leaflet from wherever you found it and follow the leader ( that’s me, the leaflet)……(just so you know)….(……). Moving on.

 

OK you have the leaflet first things first. I mostly placed these in the center of the market so nearby you should find a stall selling barely and stuff. DO NOT PICK UP SOMETHING AND THEN PUT IT BACK!!! Why, you’ll be forced to by( the owners not nice..) Anyway, to your right there should be a stall of butter eggs and milk. If you walk down this aisle you’ll find  all the bakery items, emma,wheat,spelt etcetera. At the end of the row take a left you’re in the spices department.

 

( I’m nearly done don’t worry)

 

Here you’ll find, well spices. Oh, also you get bread and stuff. My recommendation would have to be the bread with nuts. Two lefts and one right and you’re in the cloths market. Here are CLOTHS. Yeah, C L O T H S!!!!!

Then a right into jewelry and a left for crafts and for any priests there’s also papirus.

 

It’s ok i’m done. You can go now.

 

Bye.

 

Bye, I’m done.

 

Hope you enjoyed.

 

Ok, ok i’m gone. GONE!!
BYEEEEE!

xxxx

 

Image result for ancient egypt market stall

CRAFT STALL

 

 

 

 

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Information about Sekhmet

Sekhmet was the Goddess of sun.But what was weird about her was that she had an unusual head of a lion! Sekhmet wasn’t all ways bad and horrible, she had another side of her too, her other side was elegant and musical her name was Hathor who was the goddess of love and dance. As you can see Sekhmet was the complete opposite and feirce, she killed men and drank their blood visously. Her power could trick a million people and she was never keen to lose. Her strictness made Ra, another god, furious that one day he made a foolish trick on her. Importance was not for any of Hathor’s type, it was for Hathor’s enemys, Sekhmet was know for being skillful and bad, and was the queen of bitterness.

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Valley of the Dead

 VALLEY OF THE DEAD

Pyramids were one of the egyptian’s most historic builds. They were used to put the pharaoh’s bodies in a tomb inside. A pyramid didn’t just sit around on it’s own. No. There were 6 different sections surrounding the actual pyramid.

 

  • The valley temple where the dead king’s body is received when brought by boat.
  • The causeway{covered road} between the valley temple and the mortuary temple.
  • The mortuary temple where there was a funeral and offerings were made.
  • A low wall around the base of the pyramid.
  • Small pyramids for the pharaohs wives. {Sometimes}.
  • Rows of mastabas where the King’s friends are buried after they die.

All this together is called the city of the dead.

There now you know how to test your teacher about egypt.

Image result for pyramids and their surroundings

A valley of the dead

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Bastet

Image result for bastet

    This is the egyptian goddess of cats Bastet.

 

As we all know Egypt had hundreds of gods and hundreds of cats. So what about a god or goddess. Well the cat god of ancient egypt was none other than the goddess Bastet. She was a mighty god, and though she isn’t the most well known goddess, she would’ve been highly worshied back in ancient egypt.

APPEARANCE

The goddess Bastet was usually represented as a woman with the head of a domesticated cat. However, up until 1000 BC she was portrayed as a lioness.

HISTORY 

Bastet was the goddess of fire, cats, of the home and pregnant women. According to one myth, she was the personification of the soul of Isis. She was also called the “Lady of the East”. As such, her counterpart as “Lady of the West” was Sekhmet. Bastet seemed to have to sides of personality. One side was docile and aggressive, whereas the other was gentl. Her gentle side was displayed in duties o protect the home and pregnant woman. Her aggressive side was displayed during times of war. 

FESTIVALS 

Her center of worship was in Bubastis (Per-Bast, Pa-Bast, Pibeseth, Tell-Basta), in the eastern Delta. Her chief festivals were celebrated in April and May. Herodotus, the famous Greek historian, provides the following description of one of the festivals:

“When the Egyptians travel to Bubastis, they do so in this manner: men and women sail together, and in each boat there are many persons of both sexes. Some of the women shake their rattles and some of the men blow their pipes during the whole journey, while others sing and clap their hands. If they pass a town on the way, some of the women land and shout and jeer at the local women, while others dance and create a disturbance. They do this at every town on the Nile. When they arrive at Bubastis, they begin the festival with great sacrifices, and on this occasion, more wine is consumed than during the whole of the rest of the year.”

Bastet as a cat headed woman

A stone statue of Bastet

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CATS???

 WHY WERE CATS SO IMPORTANT IN EYGPT?

In ancient Egypt, the cats were created, as they were gods. The role cats played in the ancient Egyptian world is nothing like the role they play in today‘s world. Cats in ancient Egypt were protected under certain laws and these laws were strict. If anyone harmed a cat, either on purpose or by accident , then the punishment they would be severe. Anyone who killed a cat in the ancient Egyptian ages would be put to death.  Wow they were blood thirsty humans. The people in ancient Egypt would gather around to kill the person. There was a Roman who killed a cat by accident and he was still punished. Furthermore, in ancient Egypt, there were strict laws forbidding the cats from going through exportation. Which means trade. When cats became illegally exported, armies would be sent out to get the cats back from the lands they had been sent to. The ancient Egyptians had a strong love for cats, so strong that they surrendered to the Persians ( another country, Greeks\ Romans) because of their cats.

The Egyptians were once at war with the Persians when a Persian general developed a plan that would work. He knew how much the ancient Egyptians cared for their cats so he sent the soldiers to steel as many cats as they could. Instead of having their cats harmed, they surrendered and gave the city to the Persians.I KNOW!? Yes, this was a big loss and was devastating for the Egyptians.

When cats died, they would be mummified, just as humans would be. They would be put in their tombs that they built and in their tombs, they placed rats, mice and saucers of milk. Cat cemeteries can be found lining the Nile Rive. X-rays have shown that some of the cats who have been mummified died from broken necks, this may be implying that the priests of the Temples killed them in order to cut down on the population and they were used for offerings to Bast. In the city of Bubastis, there are about three hundred thousand mummified cats.

In ancient Egypt, when a cat died, the individuals who stayed in the house with the cat would go in mourning and shave their eyebrows. The next time that cute little ball of fur jumps on your lap purring away or meows for food, you should think of how his ancestors were worshiped and adored by the mummies. Cats really are great creatures that deserve that worship.

They even had a cat goddess called Bastet.

Although cats were highly worshiped in Egypt thousands were mummified and some were even offered to the gods!

 

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The egyption goddess Bastet

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Egyption cat statue

 

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